Waterpipe (“Shisha”) versus cigarette smoking: Implications for oral health
Waterpipe smoking poses a range of health impacts given the toxicant exposure involved with its use. This review aims to compare these consequences with cigarette smoking, specifically in terms of oral pathology.
A general literary review was performed using 3 academic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science). This was accompanied by a target grey literature search was supplementary information. Articles were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria applied, and subsequent screening of titles and abstracts.
Information gathered from the 11 articles selected were summarised under 3 pathological categories- pre-malignant and malignant lesions, periodontal disease, and impact on the oral
microbiome. It was thereby found that waterpipe smoking induces comparable effects on oral health to cigarette smoking, however further research into their differences in toxicant
exposure would better define these impacts.
Waterpipe smoking induces the development of oral pathologies in a manner comparable to cigarette smoking. For further understanding of their relative impacts over time, longitudinal
studies need to be conducted.